If you are a candidate who chose Biology as one of their 9 subjects then have in mind that the Waec 2022 Biology Practical Questions and answer can be reviewed here.


(a) The provision of specimens materials and equipment for the test is your responsibility

(b) Where a specimen is not readily available in sufficient quantity, it should be shared between small groups of candidates.

(c) Each candidates should be provided with the following specimens labeled accordingly;

A: Weevil damaged bean seed

B: Viable bean seed

C: Dried maize grain soaked in water overnight

D: Soldier termite (dead)

E: Honey bee (dead)

F: Muddy water (in a test tube)

G: Lower jaw of a herbivore with teeth intact

H: Head of a domestic fowl (complete)

J: Quill feather

K: Leg of a domesticated fowl (complete)

L: Head of duck (complete)

M: Led of Duck (complete)

Waec 2022 biology practical questions

Note: All specimens can be provided as group specimens for five to ten candidates. All specimens in each groups must carry individual label.

It is also essential that each candidates should be provided with each of the following materials

  • glass jar cover petri dish
  • white tiles
  • beaker
  • a hand lens/magnifying lens
  • scalpel/razor blade/knife
  • a pair of forceps
  • iodine solution

Solutions To Previous Biology Practical Specimen


1. Study Specimen A,B,C and carefully and use them to answer questions 1(a) to 1(d)

(a)(i) Name the phylum to which each of specimen A and D belong

(ii) Name the habitat of each of specimens A and D.

(b)(i) Name the type of reproduction common to specimen A,B,C and D

(ii) List the method of reproduction of each of specimen A,B,C and D giving one reason each for the method of reproduction listed.

(c) In a tabular form, state three observable differences between Specimen B and C

(d) Make a drawing 8-10 cm long of specimen A to show the essential parts and label fully.

2. Study Specimen E, F, G¹ and carefully and use them to answer questions 2(a) to 2(d)

(a)(i) Name the life process in mammals that is associated with specimen E.

(ii) State two structural similarities between the surface of specimen E and the skin of specimen F

(b)(i) Name the habitat in which specimen F will function efficiently

(ii) Explain how two observable features of specimen F adapt the organism to its habitat.

(c)(i) Using the blade provided, cut a thin transverse section of the stem of specimen G¹, add two drops of freshly prepared iodine solution to the cut section. Record your observation and inferences .

(ii) In what part of the stem is the food stored?

(iii) Name two tissues used for transportation of materials in specimen G¹.

(iv) List two supporting tissues present in specimen G¹

(d) Make a drawing 10-12 cm long of a cut transverse section of the stem of specimen G² and label it fully.


4. Study specimens L, M, N, P, Q, R and S carefully and use them to answer questions 4(a) to 4(b).

(a) Name two specimens which can be used for the following:

(i) reproduction; (ii) protection; (iii) movement;

(ii) Stating observable features in specimen L, M, N, P, Q and R suggest one reason each for the answers given in 4(a)(i), (ii) and (iii) above.

(c) State:

(i) two observable similarities

(ii) two differences between Specimen P and R

(d)(i) State how observable features of specimen M adapt the specimen to it’s functions.

(ii) Arrange specimen L,M,N and S in the increasing order of complexity of the organism to which they belong.


1(a)(i) Phylum of Specimen A and D: Specimen A: (i) Cassava/Sugar cane/ Sweet Potatoes -Tracheophyta/ Angiospermatophyta

(ii) Habitat of Specimen A and D:

Habitat of A = Land /Farmland/Grassland/Garden

Habitat of D = Stream/ Ponds/ Puddles/ Ditches

(b)(i) Type of Reproduction common to all specimens: Assexual/ Vegetative reproduction

(c) Observable differences between Specimen B and C (Banana Sucker and Runner of Grass

2(a) (i) Life Process in mammals associated with Specimen E: External respiration/ Respiration/ Gaseous exchange/ Breathing

(ii) Similarities between Specimen E and F:

(i) Both are richly supplies with blood capillaries/vascularized

(ii) Both have thin surface

(iii) Both are moist

(iv) Both have large surface area

(b)(i) Habitat of Specimen F: Land/Terrestrial/Moist Place/Pond

(ii) Observable Features That Adapt Specimen F to it’s habitat:

  • webbed digits of hind limb for easy swimming
  • streamlined body for easy movement in water
  • muscular long hind limbs for hopping/jumping
  • stout short forelimbs for absorbing shock on landing
  • presence of poisonous glands for protection against predators
  • moist skin for gaseous exchange/breathing/respiration
  • large bulging eyes for wide vision

(c)(i) Observation: Cortex Stained blue black

Starch presence in the cortex

(ii) Part of stem where food is stored: Cortex/Parenchyma

(iii) Tissues for transportation in G¹: Xylem; Phloem

(iv) Supporting Tissues in G¹: Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma,Xylem, Parenchyma

(v) Drawing Of Specimen G²


4(a) i. Specimen used for Reproduction:

(i) Irish Potato/Specimen P

(ii) Twig of Hibiscus/Bougainvillea/Specimen Q

(iii) Cutting of a cassava stem/Specimen R

4(a)ii. Specimens used for protection:

(i) Skin of a goat/cow/sheep/Specimen L

(ii) Quill feather/Specimen M

(iii) Shell of a snail/Specimen N

4(a) iii. Specimens for movement:

(i) Specimen M / Feather (quill)

(ii) Specimen S/hind wing of a cockroach

(b) Observable Features with reasons: for reproduction:

(i) Specimen P/Irish Potato – presence of bud/eyes for sprouting to produce new shoot

(ii) Specimen Q/ Twig of Hibiscus – has buds for for sprouting

(iii) Specimen R/Cutting of cassava – has buds for sprouting

For Protection:

(i) Specimen L/Skin Of Goat – Presence of hairs/sheets-like structure to protect the body against mechanical injury

(ii) Specimen M/ Feather – broad and smooth to cover body and prevent wetting/provides insulation

(iii) Specimen N / Shell – hard/careous nature to protect soft body of snail.

For Movement:

(i) Specimen M/ Feather – Those of wings and tails are flat and airtight for flight.

(ii) Specimen S /Hind Wing of Cockroach – light and flexible for flight

(c)(i) Similarities between specimens P and R:

(i) Both specimens have buds for reproduction

(ii) Both are stems and they have lenticels

(ii) Differences between Specimen P and R:

(i) Buds of Irish Potato/Specimen O is buried in tuber while buds in cassava/specimen R protudes from the stems.

(ii) Buds of Specimen P/Irish Potato are covered with scale leaves while the buds in cassava/Specimen R are not covered

(iii) Irish Potato/Specimen P stores food while cassava does not accept.

Adaptation of specimen M to its function

i. Vane is stiff to enable it to withstand air pressure during flight

ii. Vane is broad to provide a large surface area for air lift.

iii. Vane is made up of bards interlocked by barbules providing air tight surface for flight

iv. The quill is light and hollow for buoyancy

v. it is water proof to prevent bird from getting wet.

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